5th BCE Greek Text, attributed to the physician Hippocrates (called the father of western medicine), that specifies a code of conduct for those engaged in the healing arts (physicians and physician assistants). In summary, it requires the following:
- Devise appropriate diet for the sick
- Cause no hurt, suffering, or damage
- Never administer poison
- Never administer medicine that aborts a child
- Confidentiality: Never share secrets or knowledge obtained when healing or visiting the sick
In the 1960s, the oath was changed to "utmost respect for human life from its beginning," a more secular version.
The Osteopathic Oath, pledged by osteopathic medical professionals, requires confidentiality, evidence based medicine, nonmaleficence (forbidding intentional harm), forbids euthanasia, but is mute about abortion.